МГИМО Английский язык / Тест 12 / Задание V / Прочтите текст и ответьте на вопросы

МГИМО Английский язык

v. Прочтите текст и ответьте на предложенные вопросы


[start-test type=8]


Prison Reform

In the United States today there are more than half a million criminals serving time in jails or prisons. Most prisoners are male high school dropouts between the ages of 18 and 29. (A) Even more shocking is the fact that the number and rate of imprisonment has more than doubled over the past twenty years, and the recidivism — that is, the rate for rearrest — is more than 60 percent. (I) (B)

Although the stated objective of the criminal justice system, on both federal and state levels, is to rehabilitate the inmates and reintegrate them into society, the system itself does not support such a goal. Although most jails are located within the community, prisons are usually geographically or psychologically isolated and terribly overcrowded. Even in the more enlightened prisons, only one-third of the inmates have vocational training opportunities or work release options. Even fewer have access to qualified counsellors, psychologists, or social workers. (II) (C)

If prisons are indeed to achieve the goal of rehabilitating offenders, then the prisons themselves will have to change. First, they will have to be smaller, housing no more than five hundred prisoners. It has been shown that crowding in large facilities is not conducive to behavior modification. (D) Second, they will have to be built in or near population centers with community resources available for gradual reintegration into society. This must include social and psychological services. Finally, prison programs must be restructured to provide work release and vocational and academic training for all inmates to prepare them with skills that carry over into their lives after release. In addition to parole terms and community supervised work release, successful models for such collaborative efforts between the criminal justice system and the community already exist in several hundred half-way houses throughout the country where inmates complete their sentences while beginning to reestablish their lives as productive members of society. (III)

Studies suggest that imprisonment as it is currently administered must be viewed as punishment rather than reform. Until we approach the problem in terms of changing behaviours rather than segregating offenders, prisoners who are released will probably return to a life of crime. (IV)

[question text="What is the author’s main point? " answers=" *Prisons must be restructured if they are to accomplish the goal of rehabilitation#Goals for community collaboration have been successful#Most of the criminals serving time in prison do not have goals#The criminal justice system must establish a better goal "]

[question text="According to the author, how many prisoners are offered training or work release? " answers=" None#*33 1/2 percent#50 percent#60 percent "]

[question text="The word “recidivism” in Part I refers to " answers=" all people who are imprisoned#*people who return to prison after release#people who drop out of high school#people who have been in prison for a long time "]

[question text="The word “options” in Part II is closest in meaning to " answers=" exceptions#challenges#*alternatives#benefits "]

[question text="The word “them” in Part II refers to " answers=" prison systems#*inmates#goals#levels "]

[question text="Where in the passage does the author explain the rate of imprisonment over the past twenty years? " answers=" Lines A#*Lines B#Lines C#Lines D "]

[question text="What does the author mean by the statement in Part II: “Although the stated objective of the criminal justice system, on both federal and state levels, is to rehabilitate the inmates and reintegrate them into society, the systems themselves do not support such a goal”? " answers=" Inmates in prisons do not participate in rehabilitation programs before they are reintegrated into society#The goal of rehabilitation and reintegration into society is encouraged by the prison systems#*Prison systems do not promote rehabilitation and reintegration despite their goal#Rehabilitation cannot be achieved by prisons without reintegration into society "]

[question text="Why should prisons be built near towns or cities? " answers=" Prisoners benefit from family visitations#Workers need to be close to their homes#*Reintegration programs require resources#Prisons contribute to the economies "]

[question text="The author mentions all the following as necessary to prison reform EXCEPT " answers=" *newer buildings#smaller institutions#vocational training#collaboration with the community "]

[question text="The paragraph following this passage most probably discusses " answers=" the goals of most state and federal prisons#the cost of prison reform#*examples of models for community collaboration#problems with the current criminal justice system "]