МГИМО Английский язык / Тест 08 / Задание V / Прочтите текст и ответьте на вопросы

МГИМО Английский язык

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[start-test type=8]


The New Photography

In order to establish photography as art, members of the Anaesthetic Movement modeled their work on classical paintings, even copying the subjects and poses popularised by artists of the Classical Period. As the movement gained in popularity, photographers made a clear distinction between the elegant, artistic photography that conformed to the aesthetic standard used for paintings and the work of more realistic photographers that was beginning to appear.

Since they were cloudy because of the gum bichromate plate that allowed for manual intervention, the aesthetic prints were easily distinguished from the more modern prints, (Part I) which came to be called straightforward photographs. In contrast, the straightforward photographers produced images that were sharp and clear. Whereas the proponents of the Aesthetic movement (10) continued to hand colour their photographs, (Part II) adding details and textures to conform to the art of printmakers, the philosophy that surrounded the new photography rejected manipulation of either the subject matter or the print. The subjects included nature in its undisturbed state and people in everyday situations. (Part III)

A number of major exhibitions and the formation of photographic clubs during the late nineteenth century provided the impetus for the Photo-Secession Movement. Founded by Alfred Steiglitz in New York City in 1902, Photo-Secession had as its proposition the promotion of straightforward photography through exhibits and publications. One of the publications, Camera Work, has been recognized among the most beautiful journals ever produced. By the 1920s, the mechanical precision that had once been criticised as a defect by members of the Aesthetic Movement had become a hallmark of modern photography. Chiefly through the efforts of Steiglitz, modern photography had seceded from painting and emerged as a legitimate art form. In summary, the Aesthetic Movement rejected reality for beauty, but the Photo-Secessionists embraced realism as even more beautiful. (Part IV)


[question text="Which of the following would be an alternative title for the passage? " answers=" *The Photo-Secession Movement#The Aesthetic Movement#Alfred Steiglitz#Photography as Art "]


[question text="How can earlier photographs be distinguished from more modern photographs? " answers=" They were not the same colour#*They were not as clear#They did not look like paintings#They were not retouched "]


[question text="The word 'defect' in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to " answers=" disturbance#ideal#requirement#*imperfection "]


[question text="The word 'Chiefly' in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to " answers=" Only#*Mostly#Rarely#Likely "]


[question text="The word 'they' in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to " answers=" paintings#*aesthetic prints#modern prints# straightforward photographs "]


[question text="Where in the passage does the author identify the subjects that modern photographers used? " answers=" Part I#Part II#*Part III#Part IV "]


[question text="What does the author mean by the statement in paragraph 3 : ‘By the 1920s, the mechanical precision that had once been criticised as defect by members of the Aesthetic Movement had become a hallmark of modern photography’? " answers=" The defect of the Aesthetic Movement was eliminated by the mechanical precision of later photographers.#*Later photographers used mechanical precision in spite of criticism by earlier photographers in the Aesthetic Movement.#The modern photographers used hallmarks, unlike the photographers of the earlier Aesthetic Movement.#Mechanical precision was a defect that later photographers eliminated from their work. "]


[question text="What is NOT true of Camera Work? " answers=" It is considered among the most attractive magazines.#*It encouraged members of the Aesthetic Movement.#It was promoted by Alfred Steiglitz.#It was a vehicle for realistic beauty. "]


[question text="The Photo-Secession Movement is described as including all of the following EXCEPT " answers=" straightforward photographs#mechanical precision#sharp, clear images#*manipulation of prints "]


[question text="It can be inferred from the passage that the author " answers=" knew Alfred Steiglitz personally#was not interested in Alfred Steiglitz#disagreed with Alfred Steiglitz#*admired Alfred Steiglitz "]