SAT Reading

SAT reading (чтение)

 

В разделе SAT Reading основное внимание уделяется навыкам и знаниям, полученным Вами во время обучения в школе: тот материал, который Вы изучали в старшей школе послужит Вам чтобы преуспеть в колледже и университете. Речь идет о том, как Вы умеете понимать, анализировать и используете информацию.

Речь идет не о том, насколько хорошо Вы запоминаете факты и определения, поэтому готовясь к этому экзамену Вам совершенно не нужно будет проводить все ночи напролет в зубрежке.

 

что надо помнить про SAT Reading:


-    Все вопросы, связанные с чтением, являются множественным выбором и основаны на различных текстах и отрывках.
-    Некоторые отрывки связаны друг с другом.
-    Графики, таблицы и диаграммы могут сопровождать некоторые тексты, но математические вычисления не требуется.
-    Специфические знания по конкретным академическим дисциплинам, о которых может упоминаться в отрывках, не проверяются.

Что представляет из себя раздел Reading SAT

Читая отрывки текстов, пытайтесь сразу же анализировать прочитанное. Вы будете использовать прочитанный материал, чтобы ответить на вопросы.

Некоторые вопросы просят вас найти часть информации или идею, изложенную напрямую. В других вопросах Вам нужно будет понять, что подразумевают слова автора.

Другими словами, Вы должны уметь читать между строк.

 

Что вы будете читать

Чтобы преуспеть в учебе в колледже и позже, в карьере, Вам нужно уметь применить навыки чтения во всех академических дисциплинах. Не случайно, Вам также понадобятся те же самые навыки, чтобы преуспеть в раздделе SAT Reading.

 

В раздел чтения SAT всегда входят:

-    Один отрывок из произведения классической или современной литературы США или мировой литературы.
-    Один или два отрывка из документов, относящихся к основанию США, или статьи о текущих мировых проблемах (Great Global Conversation)
     Сюда, например, относятся Конституция США или речь Нельсона Манделы.
-    Отрывок статьи по экономике, психологии, социологии или другим социальным наукам.
-    Два отрывка по истории (или один отрывок и другая пара отрывков), которые охватывают основополагающие концепции и разработки в области
     науки о Земле, биологии, химии или физики.

 

Что проверяет sat reading 


Гораздо больше, чем Вы можете себе предположить! SAT Reading нацелен на проверку целого ряда различных навыков чтения.

 

Умение видеть основные признаки и черты


Сюда обычно относятся вопросы, которые просят Вас:

-    Найти доказательства в отрывке (или паре отрывков), которые лучше всего поддерживает ответ на предыдущий вопрос или служит основой для
      убедительного вывода.
-    Определить, как автор используют доказательства для подтверждения своих утверждений.
-    Найти связь между информационными графиками и отрывком, с котором он находится в паре.

 
Слова связанные с контекстом


Многие вопросы сосредоточены на важных, широко употребляемых терминах и фразах, которые Вы встретите в текстах по многим темам. С этими теримнами Вы еще неоднократно столкнетесь во время учебы в колледже и позже, на своем рабочем месте.

Новый формат SAT фокусируется на Вашей способности:

-    Используйте контекстные подсказки в отрывке, чтобы выяснить, какой смысл слова или фразы используется.
-    Решить, как выбор слова автором определяет значение, стиль и тон отрывка.

 

Анализ в истории / социальных исследованиях и в науке


SAT Reading включает в себя отрывки из работ в областях истории, социальных исследований и науки. Вам будут заданы вопросы, которые требуют от Вас использовать навыки чтения, необходимые для достижения успеха в этих предметах. Например, Вы можете прочитать об эксперименте, а затем ответить на следующие вопросы:

-    Изучить гипотезы.
-    Интерпретировать данные.
-    Подумать о последствиях.

Ваши ответы должны быть всегда основаны только на фактах, указанных или подразумевающихся в отрывке.

 

что необходимо помнить чтобы успешно сдать SAT Reading

 

SAT Reading: совет №1
Не тратьте слишком много времен и на чтение отрывков.

В разделе SAT Reading Вам следует стараться всегда успеть прочитать каждый текст за 3-4 максимум. Если Вы не будете укладываться в эти лимиты, появится существенный риск не успеть ответить на все вопросы. Бегло прочитайте текст один раз, чтобы получить основную идею, затем сразу же переходите на вопросы.

 

SAT Reading: совет №2 
Если вы теряете концентрацию или вам трудно сосредоточиться, просто попробуйте сесть поудобнее 

Даже лучшие студенты могут иногда терять фокус в День больших испытаний. Не паникуйте! Если Вы читали отрывок сидя прямо, попробуйте, например, сесть немного сутулясь или наклониться в сторону, когда будете продолжать читать. Если Вы сутулились до этого, попробуйте наоборот сесть прямо. Простая корректировка, подобная этой, очень часто решает проблему и помогает Вам снова переориентироваться на задание.

 

SAT Reading: совет №3
 Проверьте оставшееся в запасе время после третьего отрывка


Когда Вы закончите третий текст, у Вас должно оставаться еще около 25 минут на работу с этим разделом. В противном случае Вам нужно резко ускориться! На весь раздел чтения SAT Reading Вам дается 65 минут и раздел включает 5 текстов, с которыми связаны соответствующие вопросы. Это означает, что Вам следует тратить в среднем 13 минут на каждый текст.

 

SAT Reading: совет №4
 сначала ответьте на простые вопросы


Каждый текст включает разные по сложности вопросы. Если какой-то из вопросов по тексту внезапно поставил Вас в тупик,  попробуйте найти и ответить на более легкие вопросы. Это могут быть вопросы о значении слов или со ссылками на конкретные строчки, что ускоряет поиск ответа в тексте. Как только Вы ответите на эти вопросы, Вы получите лучшее представление о тексте и Вам будет намного легче с справиться с более трудными вопросами.

 

SAT Reading: совет № 5
 Если вы собираетесь пропустить вопрос, чтобы вернуться к нему позже, все равно сделайте попытку ответа
 

Новый формат SAT не предусматривает никакого штрафа за попытку угадать правильный ответ, поэтому Вы должны обязательно постараться ответить на каждый вопрос. Если Вам нужно пропустить вопрос, лучше поставьте рядом с ним галочку в тестовой брошюре и введите временный, наиболее подходящий, на Ваш взгляд ответ в форму заполнения ответов, на тот случай если у Вас не останется времени вернуться к этому вопросу позже. Вы же не хотите чтобы Вам пришлось судорожно ставить случайные догадки на Ваши пропущенные вопросы в последние секунды перед окончанием теста!

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[start-test type=8]

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Reading Test

65 MINUTES, 52 QUESTIONS

Turn to Section 1 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.

DIRECTIONS

Each passage or pair of passages below is followed by a number of questions. After reading each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table orgraph).

Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.

This passage is from Lydia Minatoya,The Strangeness of Beauty. ©1999 by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in 1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his mother to speak to his father to approach ago-between—would Chie have been more receptive? He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda, so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps, the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a calling card to the drawing room, for Chie. Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt spread over the sides of the table so their legs were tucked inside with the heat. “Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie questioned as she picked the name card off the maid’s lacquer tray.“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read. Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft intake of air. “I think you should go,” said Naomi. Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black military-style uniform of a student. As he bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistenings urface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double. “Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption, but I come with a matter of urgency. ”His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and stole a deferential peek at her face. In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity. Chie felt herself starting to like him. “Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely your business can wait for a moment or two.” “I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would approach you more properly but I’ve received word of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.” “Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement. “That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am Iinvolved?” Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message, delivered like a formal speech, filled her with maternal amusement. You know how children speak so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about things that have no importance in an adult’s mind? That’s how she viewed him, as a child. It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no effort to find her a husband. Akira blushed. “Depending on your response, I may stay in Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand. ”Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night. “Does Naomi know anything of your... ambitions?” “We have an understanding. Please don’t judge my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal. I ask directly because the use of a go-between takes much time. Either method comes down to the samething: a matter of parental approval. If you give your consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to America, to secure a new home for my bride. ”Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her fullin the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no more of your evening. My address is on my card. If you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night. ”He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless grace, like a cat making off with a fish. “Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and turned from the door. “He has asked you?” The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were preposterous. “Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her toAmerica all in the snap of his fingers!” Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter. Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke. “I met him at my literary meeting.” Naomi turned to go back into the house, then stopped. “Mother.” “Yes?” “I mean to have him.”

*a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her family’s name

[question text="Which choice best describes what happens in the passage? " answers="One character argues with another character who intrudes on her home.#*One character receives a surprising request from another character.#One character reminisces about choices she has made over the years.#One character criticizes another character for pursuing an unexpected course of action "]

[question text="Which choice best describes the developmental pattern of the passage? " answers="A careful analysis of a traditional practice#*A detailed depiction of a meaningful encounter#A definitive response to a series of questions#A cheerful recounting of an amusing anecdote "]

[question text="As used twice in the passage, “directly” most nearly means " answers="frankly#confidently#*without mediation#with precision "]

[question text="Which reaction does Akira most fear from Chie? " answers="*She will consider his proposal inappropriate.#She will mistake his earnestness for immaturity.#She will consider his unscheduled visit an imposition.#She will underestimate the sincerity of his emotions. "]

[question text="Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? " answers="Line “His voice was soft, refined.”#Lines “You know how children speak so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?”#*Lines “Please don’t judge my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.”#Lines “Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full in the face.”"]

[question text="In the passage, Akira addresses Chie with " answers="affection but not genuine love.#objectivity but not complete impartiality.#amusement but not mocking disparagement.#*respect but not utter deference "]

[question text="The main purpose of the first paragraph is to " answers="describe a culture.#criticize a tradition.#question a suggestion.#*analyze a reaction "]

[question text="As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means " answers="appearance.#*custom.#structure.#nature. "]

[question text="Why does Akira say his meeting with Chie is “a matter of urgency”? " answers="He fears that his own parents will disapprove of Naomi.#He worries that Naomi will reject him and marry someone else.#*He has been offered an attractive job in another country.#He knows that Chie is unaware of his feelings for Naomi. "]

[question text="Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? " answers="Line “I don’t want to trouble you.”#*Lines “Normally I would approach you more properly but I’ve received word of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community”#Lines “Depending on your response, I may stay in Japan.”#Lines “I see I’ve startled you..”"]


Questions 11-21 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.

This passage is adapted from Francis J. Flynn and GabrielleS. Adams, "Money Can't Buy Love: Asymmetric Beliefs aboutGift Price and Feelings of Appreciation." ©2008 by Elsevier Inc .

Every day, millions of shoppers hit the stores in full force—both online and on foot—searching frantically for the perfect gift. Last year, Americans spent over $30 billion at retail stores in the month of December alone. Aside from purchasing holiday gifts, most people regularly buy presents for other occasions throughout the year, including weddings, birthdays, anniversaries, graduations, and baby showers. This frequent experience of gift-giving can engender ambivalent feelings in gift-givers. Many relish the opportunity to buy presents because gift-giving offers a powerful means to build stronger bonds with one’s closest peers. At the same time, many dread the thought of buying gifts; they worry that their purchases will disappoint rather than delight the intended recipients. Anthropologists describe gift-giving as a positive social process, serving various political, religious, and psychological functions. Economists, however, offer a less favourable view. According to Waldfogel (1993), gift-giving represents an objective waste of resources. People buy gifts that recipients would not choose to buy on their own, or at least not spend as much money to purchase (a phenomenon referred to as‘‘the deadweight loss of Christmas”). To wit, givers are likely to spend $100 to purchase a gift that receivers would spend only $80 to buy themselves.This ‘‘deadweight loss” suggests that gift-givers are not very good at predicting what gifts others will appreciate. That in itself is not surprising to social psychologists. Research has found that people often struggle to take account of others’ perspectives—their insights are subject to egocentrism, social projection, and multiple attribution errors.What is surprising is that gift-givers have considerable experience acting as both gift-givers and gift-recipients, but nevertheless tend to overspend each time they set out to purchase a meaningful gift. In the present research, we propose a unique psychological explanation for this overspending problem—i.e., that gift-givers equate how much they spend with how much recipients will appreciate the gift (the more expensive the gift, the stronger a gift-recipient’s feelings of appreciation). Although a link between gift price and feelings of appreciation might seem intuitive to gift-givers, such an assumption may be unfounded. Indeed, we propose that gift-recipients will be less inclined to base their feelings of appreciation on the magnitude of a gift than givers assume. Why do gift-givers assume that gift price is closely linked to gift-recipients’ feelings of appreciation? Perhaps givers believe that bigger (i.e., more expensive) gifts convey stronger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration. According to Camerer (1988) and others, gift-giving represents a symbolic ritual, whereby gift-givers attempt to signal their positive attitudes toward the intended recipient and their willingness to invest resources in a future relationship. In this sense, gift-givers may be motivated to spend more money on a gift in order to send a “stronger signal” to their intended recipient. As for gift-recipients, they may not construe smaller and larger gifts as representing smaller and larger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration.The notion of gift-givers and gift-recipients being unable to account for the other party’s perspective seems puzzling because people slip in and out of these roles every day, and, in some cases, multiple times in the course of the same day. Yet, despite the extensive experience that people have as both givers and receivers, they often struggle to transfer information gained from one role (e.g., as a giver)and apply it in another, complementary role (e.g., asa receiver). In theoretical terms, people fail to utilise information about their own preferences and experiences in order to produce more efficient outcomes in their exchange relations. In practical terms, people spend hundreds of dollars each year on gifts, but somehow never learn to calibrate their gift expenditures according to personal insight.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[question text="The authors most likely use the examples in the beginnung of the passage (“Every day, millions of shoppers ... and baby showers.”) to highlight the " answers="regularity with which people shop for gifts.#recent increase in the amount of money spent on gifts.#anxiety gift shopping causes for consumers.#number of special occasions involving gift-giving. "]

[question text="The word “ambivalent” in the passage most nearly means " answers="unrealistic#conflicted#apprehensive#supportive. "]

[question text="The authors indicate that people value gift-giving because they feel it " answers="functions as a form of self-expression.#is an inexpensive way to show appreciation.#requires the gift-recipient to reciprocate.#can serve to strengthen a relationship. "]

[question text="Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? " answers="Lines “Many relish the opportunity to buy presents because gift-giving offers a powerful means to build stronger bonds with one’s closest peers.”#Lines “People buy gifts that recipients would not choose to buy on their own.”#Lines “Research has found that people often struggle to take account of others’ perspectives.”#Lines “Although a link between gift price and feelings of appreciation might seem intuitive to gift-givers, such an assumption may be unfounded.” "]

[question text="The “social psychologists” mentioned in the passage would likely describe the “dead weight loss” phenomenon as " answers="predictable.#questionable.#disturbing.#unprecedented. "]

[question text="The passage indicates that the assumption made by gift-givers (Lines "... gift-givers equate how much they spend with how much recipients will appreciate the gift (the more expensive the gift, the stronger a gift-recipient’s feelings of appreciation.) may be " answers="insincere.#unreasonable.#incorrect.#substantiated. "]

[question text="Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? " answers="Lines “Perhaps givers believe that bigger (i.e., more expensive) gifts convey stronger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration.”#Lines “According to Camerer (1988) and others, gift-giving represents a symbolic ritual, whereby gift-givers attempt to signal their positive attitudes toward the intended recipient and their willingness to invest resources in a future relationship.”#Lines “As for gift-recipients, they may not construe smaller and larger gifts as representing smaller and larger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration.”#Lines “In theoretical terms, people fail to utilize information about their own preferences and experiences in order to produce more efficient outcomes in their exchange relations.”"]

[question text="As it is used in the passage, the word “convey” most nearly means " answers="transport.#counteract.#exchange.#communicate. "]

[question text="The graph following the passage offers evidence that gift-givers base their predictions of how much a gift will be appreciated on " answers="he appreciation level of the gift-recipients.#the monetary value of the gift.#their own desires for the gifts they purchase.#their relationship with the gift-recipients. "]

[question text="The authors would likely attribute the differences in gift-giver and recipient mean appreciation as represented in the graph to " answers="an inability to shift perspective.#an increasingly materialistic culture.#a growing opposition to gift-giving.#a misunderstanding of intentions. "]


Questions 22-31 are based on the followingpassage and supplementary material.

This passage is adapted from J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick,“Genetical Implications of the Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid.” ©1953 by Nature Publishing Group. Watson and Crick deduced the structure of DNA using evidence from Rosalind Franklin and R. G. Gosling’s X-ray crystallography diagrams of DNA and from Erwin Chargaff’s data on the base composition of DNA.

 

The chemical formula of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is now well established. The molecule is a very long chain, the backbone of which consists of a regular alternation of sugar and phosphate groups.To each sugar is attached a nitrogenous base, which can be of four different types. Two of the possible bases—adenine and guanine—are purines, and the other two—thymine and cytosine—are pyrimidines.So far as is known, the sequence of bases along the chain is irregular. The monomer unit, consisting of phosphate, sugar and base, is known as a nucleotide.The first feature of our structure which is of biological interest is that it consists not of one chain, but of two. These two chains are both coiled around a common fiber axis. It has often been assumed that since there was only one chain in the chemical formula there would only be one in the structural unit. However, the density, taken with the X-ray evidence, suggests very strongly that there are two.The other biologically important feature is the manner in which the two chains are held together.This is done by hydrogen bonds between the bases.The bases are joined together in pairs, a single base from one chain being hydrogen-bonded to a single base from the other. The important point is that only certain pairs of bases will fit into the structure. One member of a pair must be a purine and the other a pyrimidine in order to bridge between the two chains. If a pair consisted of two purines, for example, there would not be room for it. We believe that the bases will be present almost entirely in their most probable forms. If this is true, the conditions for forming hydrogen bonds are more restrictive, and the only pairs of bases possible are: adenine with thymine, and guanine with cytosine. Adenine, for example, can occur on either chain; but when it does, its partner on the other chain must always be thymine.The phosphate-sugar backbone of our model is completely regular, but any sequence of the pairs of bases can fit into the structure. It follows that in a long molecule many different permutations are possible, and it therefore seems likely that the precise sequence of bases is the code which carries the genetical information. If the actual order of the bases on one of the pair of chains were given, one could write down the exact order of the bases on the other one, because of the specific pairing. Thus one chain is, as it were, the complement of the other, and it is this feature which suggests how the deoxyribonucleic acid molecule might duplicate itself.The table shows, for various organisms, the percentage of each of the four types of nitrogenous bases in that organism’s DNA.

[question text="As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means " answers="appearance.#*custom.#structure.#nature. "]

[question text="As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means " answers="appearance.#*custom.#structure.#nature. "]

[question text="As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means " answers="appearance.#*custom.#structure.#nature. "]

[question text="As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means " answers="appearance.#*custom.#structure.#nature. "]

[question text="As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means " answers="appearance.#*custom.#structure.#nature. "]

[question text="As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means " answers="appearance.#*custom.#structure.#nature. "]

[question text="As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means " answers="appearance.#*custom.#structure.#nature. "]

[question text="As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means " answers="appearance.#*custom.#structure.#nature. "]

[question text="As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means " answers="appearance.#*custom.#structure.#nature. "]

[question text="As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means " answers="appearance.#*custom.#structure.#nature. "]

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[end-test]

STOP

If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not turn to any other section.